Mating disruption is being revolutionized by aerosol devices called "puffers". Looking like small hair spray containers swinging from tree branches, puffers have been used to control coddling moths in pear and walnut trees, and are making their way into apple orchards this year. Unlike twist ties or aluminum flaps, which release less pheromone as time goes by, puffers release a discrete burst of pheromone every 45 seconds. Each puff releases the equivalent of 10 million female moths into the air.

Not only are they more efficient, but puffers can save farmers labor and money. They can be placed 10 per side of a 40 acre block, rather than 100-400 per acre for ties or membranes. They are also placed lower on a tree, making them easier to hang. Since fewer puffers are needed per acre, they may soon compete in price with conventional sprays.

Farmers who cannot rely on mating disruption due to geography of their orchard, however, still have an arsenal of other biological weapons at their disposal. Parasites of coddling moth eggs in the form of wasps, worms, bacteria, or virus can be sprayed to kill off eggs before they hatch. Any of these can be used alone, or as a supplement to pheromones. "All techniques work well, if you understand the dynamics and biology of your orchard," said Loyal.